德国——统计 & 事实

德国 is Europe’s most powerful economy, and the most populous country located entirely on the continent. 成立于1871年, it’s rapid industrialization and economic growth quickly saw 德国 challenge the other world powers on an international scale. 20世纪初德国的历史th century was then dominated by its role in both World Wars and the atrocities committed under the Nazi regime. 第二次世界大战之后, 德国 was occupied by the Allied Powers; the Soviet-controlled east would eventually split and become the German Democratic Republic (known as East 德国, 或DDR), while the other three zones formed the Federal Republic of 德国 (known as West 德国). West 德国 operated as a liberal democracy with a market economy, while East 德国 operated under communist and socialist structures. 这两个国家都将 significant economic growth during the post-war period, 和西德, 随着法国, took a leading role in European integration throughout the remainder of the century. 随着 communist system collapsed across Europe during the 1980s, 德国 was officially reunified on October 3, 1990; as 德国 (Berlin especially) was viewed as the meeting point of democracy and communism in Europe, 拆卸 柏林墙 in 1989 came to symbolize the fall of European communism. Since reunification, 德国 has re-emerged as a world power and a de facto leader of the 欧盟. After a brief downturn in the early 2000s, 安格拉•默克尔(德国总理安格拉•默克尔(Angela Merkel))于2005年上台, from which point the German economy has been synonymous with stability, 弹性, 和经济增长, even during crises such as the Great Recession and the Covid大流行. 有一些挑战, 然而, 比如人口老龄化, imbalances between the west and former-DDR states, 和最近的一个 右翼民粹主义崛起; yet, 德国 ranks very highly in terms of human development, 平等, 和自由, 有强大的福利制度.


2021年,德国有一个估计 83人口.300万人然而,人口增长非常低. 最大的城市是柏林,有3个.6 million people, followed by Hamburg and Munich, with 1.8和1.5 million inhabitants respectively; 然而, the largest metropolitan region is the Rhine-Ruhr area, with a population of almost 11 million people across several cities such as Cologne, 杜塞尔多夫, 和多特蒙德. 自1972年以来, 德国’s crude death rate has consistently been higher than its crude birth rate, meaning that 德国 has been experiencing a natural population decline for five decades. 因为这些因素, population growth in 德国 has largely been dependent migration, 2020年,, 据估计 almost 13 percent of the population is foreign. 自1960年代以来, 德国 has had sizeable migrant populations, particularly through waves of Gastarbeiter (guest workers) who came from Southern Europe and Turkey in the 1960s, before waves of Eastern Europeans arrived after the collapse of communism, 其次是中东人 过去20年里的难民. Of 德国的11.400万名外国人, almost 70 percent are from Europe, over 20 percent are Asian, and five percent are from Africa. 土耳其是最常见的 外国人的原产国,接近1.5 million Turks living in 德国 (although there may be somewhere between four and seven million with Turkish heritage), 其次是波兰和叙利亚, 每个超过800,000移民.


2020年,德国有一个名义利率 国内生产总值的3.3万亿欧元 (3.8万亿U.S. 美元), making it the fourth largest economy in the world. 人均国内生产总值超过46000美元.S. 美元 it is in the top 10 percent of countries. 德国是商品净出口国美国与美国的贸易差额为2090亿美元.S. 美元在2019年. It is the third largest exporter in the world (behind the U.S. 和中国), specializing in technologically advanced goods, 特别是汽车和机械, 电子产品, 和药品. It’s largest trading partner is the wider EU trading bloc, although the U.S. receives more German exports than any other individual country. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, 德国’s national debt rose above 70 percent of GDP,据估计它会 take until 2025 for the economy to recover.


德国 is a federal republic with a parliamentary system. Ultimate legislative power is held by the Bundestag (parliament), while the Bundesrat represents 德国’s 16 federal states on a national level. The country is led by the Chancellor, who is chosen by the 政党或联盟 在联邦议院拥有最多席位. The Chancellor is the head of government, while the President acts as the head of state in a more ceremonial capacity. 后, 2021年大选, the Social Democratic Party (SDP) won the largest share of votes, and lead the so-called traffic light coalition, along with the Green Party and Free Democratic Party (FDP). This is the first time since 2005 where the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), the most dominant party in German politics since the Second World War, 新京十大正规网站不负责. The SDP’s coalition with the Green Party may result in more stringent 气候行动, while the FDP may demand more liberal economic policies; after more than 16 years of 德国总理安格拉•默克尔(Angela Merkel)’s leadership, it remains to be seen how 德国’s position in the world will change or develop under the (likely) leadership of Olaf Scholz.


在以下6个章节中, you will quickly find the 59 most important statistics relating to "德国".


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